See also Elasticsearch: administration
Indexes: store all the JSON documents and are stored in a shard
Shards: a complete Lucene database
Indices can be stored in multiple shards.
i.e. if we have multiple nodes then shards will migrate across nodes – aka rebalancing.
Replicas: an exact duplicate of a shard (except designated as a Replica). Can configure as many replicas per shard as you like.
E.g. here you have 2 shards plus 2 replicas. Each contain the one index (
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Replicas are Read-only and can serve data thereby increasing scale.
Can run all on a single node but makes it more efficient if you separate them out.
- most hard working
- contains all shards
- don’t typically receive service queries
- tend to be the beefiest
- gateway to the cluster
- big increase in performance
- handle all query requests and redirects them to the data nodes
- brains of cluster
- maintains cluster state
- all nodes have a copy of the state but only the master can update cluster state
To test, set up a load test on one node until node is completely saturated.
E.g. 1M documents on 1 node = 4.0 seconds then probably need 4 nodes to get to 1.0 second response time.
To avoid split brain scenario: set minimum_master_nodes to (number of master nodes / 2 ) + 1]
Should have at least 3.
Could exist behind a load balancer.
E.g. in summary, a setup could be:
4 data nodes, 3 master nodes, 2 client nodes – i.e. a total of 9 nodes.
- CPU: more cores the better (favour over clock speed) – i.e. better to run more processes concurrently rather than run them faster
- RAM: 64GB for Data nodes is ideal (e.g. in AWS an
i3.2xlarge – https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/i3/ )
- Disks: fastest disks possible. Safe to use RAID 0 for more speed though not fault tolerant but Elasticsearch has shards. Avoid using NAS as performance will drop drastically
- Networking: keep clustering within same data centre as shard rebalancing requires fast networking
- VMs: don’t use for data nodes in production
Running on AWS
See also https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/plugins/master/cloud-aws-best-practices.html